International Palm Society LogoReintroduction of Pseudophoenix sargentii in the Florida Keys

Reprinted with permission from the January 1995 issue of Principes, Vol 39, No 1
Journal of the International Palm Society

1995 The International Palm Society, all rights reserved


Fairchild Tropical Garden, 11935 Old Cutler Road, Miami, FL 33156, USA

This is an article about restoring wild palms in their wild places. As a horticulturist, I delight in the cultivation of palms from around the world. As an ecologist, I live with a profound sense of loss, knowing that some palm species may exist only in gardens, their natural habitats destroyed.

As former Curator of Endangered Species at Fairchild Tropical Garden, I know that botanic gardens are more than just pretty places. Palm collections such as Fairchild's provide a tantalizing example of the diversity of palms that have evolved in dynamic natural systems. Yet palms grown in the controlled simplicity of a garden are at an evolutionary dead-end. Therefore, the collections and scientific resources of botanic gardens should be used to re-establish rare palms in appropriate natural habitats, where species can continue to evolve with a myriad of mingling plants and animals. Reintroduction of plants into conservation areas is becoming a more common practice in efforts to prevent extinction of endangered species (Falk and Olweu 1992).

Transplanting of an endangered species might take place if a site is being cleared and the plants would otherwise be destroyed, or for restoration of a wild population that has dwindled due to human activities. While championing endangered species reintroductions, I do not advocate jaunts into the woods to add to the flora to an area or to spread around species which one personally thinks should be more abundant. The motive for reintroduction should be more than an impulsive urge to right a wrong. Reintroduction should be a carefully planned and documented experiment in restoring a lost or abused member species in a native plant community. Scientific staff of  The Nature Conservancy, an international conservation organization that manages numerous nature preserves, recently developed an elegantly simple dichotomous key to help in deciding when species reintroductions are appropriate (Gordon 1994). First, is the species really threatened? Are there protected populations? Is there protected habitat within the known range of the species? Has the original cause of species decline been identified and eliminated? Are verifiable and legal propagules available? Is site management within the requirements or tolerance of the species?

These questions will be addressed in the following description of a relatively straightforward reintroduction project for a threatened palm species in south Florida. While not the perfect model, it is an example of a stepwise process that we hope will result in a thriving and self-sustaining palm population in the wild.

A Rare Florida Native: Pseudophoenix sargentii

Pseudophoenix sargentii H. Wend. ex Sargent, the Sargent's cherry palm, was first discovered in 1886 on Elliott Key, an island ten miles from the shores of Miami, Florida, and was first described from specimens collected there (Sargent 1886). Soon thereafter, Pseudophoenix sargentii was found on Sands Key, adjacent to Elliott Key, and on Long Key, about 50 miles southwest of Elliott Key. Even upon discovery, palm populations on these three islands were small, from a few dozen to a few hundred palms. A thorough and disheartening chronology of the status of this palm species in the Florida Keys, from its discovery through the late 1950's, was published in an early Principes article (Ledin et al. 1959) (Figs. 1,2). Hundreds of these attractive palms were dug up from Long Key to be sold as ornamentals, and a scraggly few remained. On Elliott and Sands Keys, all but a few of the palms were cleared for island plantations and homesites.

Ten years after Ledin's surveys of Pseudophoenix sargentii, the interior of Elliott Key was bulldozed by spiteful developers just prior to federal purchase of the island for the formation of Biscayne National Park. By 1991, when volunteers and I had resurveyed all of the historical locations of the Sargent's cherry palm, no palms were found on Long or Sands Keys, and fewer than fifty palms remained on Elliott Key (for a full account, see Lippincott 1992).

The small Sargent's cherry palm population in subtropical Florida is peripheral to the species' wider distribution along the tropical coastlines of the Bahama Islands, Hispaniola, Cuba, and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Throughout its range in the northern Caribbean, Pseudophoenix sargentii is increasingly threatened by the activities of humans. On most of the shores where it occurs, Pseudophoenix sargentii is threatened by imminent development, as impoverished Caribbean nations lure foreign tourists with resorts and vacation homes. Mature palms are frequently dug from natural areas and transplanted into gardens, with few surviving the move. In areas such as Saona Island, a U.S. Coast Guard base where the wild palms are protected from harvest, almost no young palms are found because feral grazers such as goats feast on fruits and seedlings (R. W. Read, personal communication). Reproduction of Sargent's cherry palm is also compromised by excessive fruit collection for livestock feed. In summary, the survival of wild populations of Pseudophoenix sargentii throughout the northern Caribbean is tenuous. In Florida, the Sargent's cherry palm has been reduced in the last century from hundreds of palms on three islands to a few dozen palms on one island. We decided that this palm met the criteria of "threatened," and proceeded to plan for its restoration on the three Florida islands where it once occurred more abundantly.

Although I will use the term "reintroduction" inclusively in this article, the term is strictly defined (IUCN 1984) as the reestablishment of a species which no longer exists at a site, as in this case, the return of Sargent's cherry palms to Long Key, where palm harvesters had extirpated the wild population. Since palms still exist on Elliott Key, replanting on that island is correctly termed "restocking," and is usually done to moderate genetic risks associated with reduced population size.

This excerpt is just the first half of the article that originally appeared in the January 1995 issue of Principes.  Several photos in both color and black and white accompany the article.  Back issues are available through our online shopping cart while supplies last.

Previous level ] Rhapis Palms ] Ravenea in Madagascar ] Trachycarpus in Canada ] Coconut Palm in East Africa ] Chrysalidocarpus decipiens ] Trachycarpus princeps ] [ Pseudophoenix sargentii ] Palms in Europe ] Palms in Eastern Panama ] Editorial ] The Red Sea Hyphaene ] Medemia argun Lives! ] Pelagodoxa henryana in Fiji ] Rattans and Rheophytes ] History of Subtropical Gardening ] Palms of the Dominican Republic ] Vegetable Ivory ] Phoenix canariensis in the Wild ] Chuniophoenix in Cultivation ] Trachycarpus latisectus ] A Practical Guide to Germinating Palm Seeds ]

Back to IPS homepage

Please sign our guestbook and visit our bulletin board too!

1995 - 2000, The International Palm Society, All Rights Reserved
WWW Site Established: August 1995

Website design and services provided by Digital Raingardens
Webmaster:  Jana Meiser